Artists travelled and used to sketch what they saw in their sketch books , the idea taht an artist could paint a landscape directly from nature, without modifying it became common only in the 19 century . Landscape can often be seen in idealised forms in the background . the development of landscape painting was essentially a Northern phenomenon dominated by the Netherlands . it was the French painter Claude Lorrain who set down the rules for landscape painting . he depicted a peaceful and idilli nature where the landscape is invented rather than observed.
John Constable was born in Suffolk he went to london and met john thomas smith an engraver drawing master and antiquarian who encouraged his interest in art. he was admitted to the royal academy as a student. It was the region of the river stour where he had grown up which provided the core of his inspiration. His method was first to make oil sketches outdoors and then slowly put the painting together in his studio . his aim was not to romanticise but to be more true to life. The death of his belve wife . this different view can be noticed in the formo f a growing awareness of the dynamism of the natural world , works that are almost sinister in their turbulence .
Romanticism lay new emphasis on the significante of the individual , seen essentially in the solitary state and re-valed the special qualities of each individual’s mind . even the rediscovery of the concept of nation in op position to 18 century cosmopolitism influenced the importance of the individual . in the romantic age the notion of people was linked to that of nation as a group of individuals joined by the ties of religion , language , culture and tradition . just as a country claimed its historical identity each man could boast his own personal history as unique. The idea of the romantic hero as a rebel sprang from German romanticism anticipated by the sum und drang movement of the 1770s. most romantic works derived from the artist’s frustration and dissatisfaction with contemporary society . a change in society was wished by the most sensitive European romantic writers who were deeply influenced by the nationalist movements. Some of them turned themselves into poet prophets , instruments of that change . the english author that best embolie this rebellious attitude in poetry and life , was george gordon lord byron . he was committed to the greek struggle for independence from turkey , on the other hand throught his characters he created a romantic type the baroni hero who schive a european reputation and exerted a significant influence on other writers .
When a man hath no freedom
When a man hath no freedom to fight for at home .
Let him combat for that of his neighbours
Let him think of the glories of greece and rome
And get knock’d on his head for his labours.
To do good to makind is the chivalrous plan
And is always as nobly requie
Then battle for freedom wherever you can
And if not shot or hang’d you’ll get knighted